Charging Towards Sustainability

By Mr. Ankit Sharma, Co-Founder & Director, Vidyuta Materials Pvt. Ltd.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are not just the future of transportation—they represent a pivotal step towards a sustainable energy ecosystem. However, as the adoption of EVs grows, so does the question of what to do with their batteries once they reach the end of their primary life cycle. Fortunately, through refurbishment, repurposing, and recycling with the help of sustainable cathode materials, we can extend the lifespan of lithium-ion EV batteries and unlock valuable resources for a greener tomorrow. Between 2010 and 2018, battery demand surged annually by 30%, reaching 180 GWh in 2018. Continuing this trend, the market is projected to expand at a rate of approximately 25% per year, hitting 2,600 GWh by 2030. This growth is primarily propelled by the electrification of transportation and the increased use of batteries in electricity grids.

The rapid expansion of the lithium-ion battery industry has revolutionized energy storage but poses environmental challenges in cathode manufacturing due to primary material extraction. To address concerns such as resource depletion and emissions, the industry is increasingly embracing recycling as a sustainable solution for cathode material production.

The Power of Circular Economy

In embracing a circular economy model, we recognize the importance of maximizing resource efficiency and minimizing waste. By refurbishing, repurposing, and recycling EV batteries, we not only reduce environmental impact but also create economic opportunities within the battery industry. This paradigm shift towards circularity is essential for fostering sustainability and driving innovation in energy storage.

The production or manufacturing of sustainable cathode materials would further give a fillip to the EV battery recycling industry to meet the vision of a circular economy.

Repurposing for Second Life

When EV batteries reach the end of their primary life, they still retain substantial energy capacity. Instead of disposing of these batteries, repurposing them for second or third-life applications using sustainable cathode materials presents a more sustainable alternative. Rapid advancements in battery recycling technologies have enabled us to achieve impressive recovery rates, a process known as urban mining. As battery volumes are projected to increase significantly by 2030, the urban mining industry is poised for substantial growth.

Global Trends in Battery Recycling

Europe leads the charge in battery recycling, supported by robust regulatory frameworks that mandate producers to manage the end-of-life of their batteries responsibly. China, the largest EV and battery market globally, has also implemented policies requiring manufacturers to recycle a significant portion of used batteries by 2025. In the United States, initiatives like the Department of Energy’s focus on developing recycling technologies highlight a growing emphasis on battery recycling. With the Li-ion battery market projected to soar, the recycling sector and cathode materials industry are poised for substantial growth, offering lucrative opportunities for sustainable innovation.

Shaping the Future in India

Niti Aayog forecasts India’s EV battery recycling market to skyrocket to 128 GWh by 2030, up from just 2 GWh in 2023. This surge is fueled by over a 200% year-on-year growth in EV sales post-pandemic. However, recycling modern batteries, with their complex material composition, demands specialized policies and infrastructure for India to achieve its recycling objectives. Apart from that, the government’s introduction of Battery-Waste Management Rules-2022 underscores a commitment to responsible battery management. By incentivizing recycling and promoting the use of sustainable cathode materials in new batteries, India aims to reduce reliance on imports and foster domestic battery manufacturing. This proactive approach aligns with India’s broader vision of sustainable development and economic growth.

A Vision for a Sustainable Future

At the vanguard of the energy storage sector, numerous Indian entities dedicated to battery recycling lead the charge in innovation. Focusing on the production of cathode active materials (CAM) for lithium-ion cells, these pioneers exemplify a dedication to sustainability and technological progress. Their vision entails establishing a closed-loop battery ecosystem, poised to transform the energy storage landscape not only in India but also globally. Through inventive recycling methods and strategic resource management, these companies or startups aspire to realize a future characterized by abundant, cost-effective, and eco-friendly power solutions.

Apart from that, Indian players in the battery recycling ecosystem are also making efforts towards reducing the reliance on critical minerals from other countries such as China, which today remains the biggest problem for countries such as India. By using sustainable energy transition materials through recycling, repurposing, and low-carbon refining within the group company, they aim to ensure a sustainable supply chain while minimizing its carbon footprint.

Unlocking the Potential of Sustainable Cathode Materials

The rise of the lithium-ion battery industry has brought about environmental challenges in cathode manufacturing, primarily due to the extraction of primary materials like lithium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese. Recycling emerges as a sustainable solution, offering multiple benefits. It conserves natural resources by reducing the demand for primary extraction, curbing energy consumption, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions in cathode production. Additionally, recycling minimizes waste, pollution, and costs associated with material extraction and processing. By fostering closed-loop production, recycling ensures a stable supply chain of critical materials and promotes a circular economy approach, vital for sustainability in cathode manufacturing. The industry is witnessing a shift towards recycling technologies, driven by collaboration and innovation, to meet the increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries sustainably. Embracing these practices is essential for a greener future in cathode production.


The future of energy storage lies in embracing sustainability and innovation. By recycling used EV batteries and embracing sustainable cathode materials, we mitigate environmental impact and unlock resources for future generations. Responsible battery management, collaboration, and a commitment to sustainability are paramount as we build a greener, resilient energy ecosystem for generations to come. In this direction, cathode material recycling offers sustainable solutions, including resource conservation, energy reduction, emission cuts, waste minimization, cost efficiency, and supply chain resilience. As we transition towards a circular economy model, the importance of this approach cannot be overstated.